The Effect of Artichoke Extract on Heterocyclic Aromatic Amine Formation in Meatballs
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of different levels of artichoke extract (0, 0.5, and 1.0%) on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in meatballs cooked by either pan-frying or oven-roasting. Material and Methods: All meat samples were cooked at three different temperatures (150, 200, and 250 °C) and the levels of 12 HAAs (IQ, IQx, MeIQ, MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, 7,8-DiMeIQx, PhIP, harman, norharman, AαC, MeAαC, and Trp-P-2) were assessed. Results: The total HAA content ranged from 0.2 to 2.48 ng/g. The inhibitory effects of artichoke extracts on total HAAs levels were found to be between 2-83%. Conclusion: The present study showed that artichoke extracts could mitigate HAA formation and inhibitory effects of artichoke extract are concentration-dependent.