Evaluation of Food Consumption According to Chronotype in University Students
Aim: This study was planned and conducted in order to determine the chronotype of university students and to compare food consumption according to chronotype.
Subjects and Method: A total of 807 university students, 198 male (24.5%) and 609 female (75.5%), with aged between of 19-31 years were included in study. A questionnaire was used to obtain about general characteristics, nutrition and sleeping habits of the individuals, and Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) was used to determine the chronotype. Two-day food records were completed by the participants and body weight and height measurements were taken according to the recommended procedures by researchers Meeting status the daily requirements of energy and nutrients intake of individuals were evaluated to Turkey Nutrition Guidebook.
Results: Twenty-three percent of participants had morning type (n= 186), 52.8% had intermediate type (n= 426) and 24.2% had evening type (n= 195) chronotype. Daily water intake of morning-type individuals is significantly higher than that of intermediate and evening-type individuals (p=0.000). According to the anthropometric measurements of the individuals, it was determined that the body mass index (BMI) values of morning-type individuals were higher than the evening types (p=0.014). In the morning-type individuals participating in the study, the proportion of those who skipped breakfast on weekdays and lunch on weekends was significantly lower than those of the evening-type (p=0.002, p=0.011, respectively). In the evening-type individuals, the percentage of daily energy from carbohydrates was higher than in the morning-type individuals (p=0.043). In the morning-type individuals, the percentage of daily energy from fat was higher than in the evening-type (p=0.020). In the morning-type subjects, the daily intake of folic acid was higher than in the evening-type subjects (p=0.018).
Conclusion: In this study, it was determined that although university students have different chronotypes, their food consumption is similar. The chronotype that interacts with factors such as nutrition and sleep patterns may cause changes in physiological processes. Nutritional status of university students according to their chronotype must be supported by prospective physiological studies.